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ゼノンのパラドックス「アキレスと亀」「飛ぶ矢は飛ばない」とパルメニデスの思想

皆さんはゼノンのパラドックス「アキレスと亀」「飛ぶ矢は飛ばない」をご存知でしょうか。

誰かさん

アキレスが亀に追いつけないのはなぜ?飛んでいる矢が飛ばないってどういうこと?

当為

古代ギリシアの哲学者ゼノンが立てたパラドックスですが、今現在も完全には論破されていません。

今回はこのゼノンのパラドックス「アキレスと亀」「飛ぶ矢は飛ばない」について説明し、このパラドックスを生むきっかけになったパルメニデスの思想について簡単にまとめてみました。

アキレス(アキレウス)と亀 追いつかない矛盾

アキレス(アキレウス)と亀

ある日、アキレスと亀は徒競走をすることになりました。

アキレスは俊足な男。当然、足の速さで亀が敵うわけがありません。 アキレス(アキレウス)と亀 そこで亀はアキレスのスタート地点よりも、少し先に進んだ所から走り出すことになりました。

さて競争が始まり、アキレスがA地点に到達したとしましょう。 アキレス(アキレウス)と亀 アキレスより少し先の地点からスタートした亀は、アキレスがA地点に到達するのにかかった時間だけ少し進んで、B地点にいます。 アキレス(アキレウス)と亀 今度はアキレスがB地点に着きました。

そのとき亀は、いくら足が遅くてもB地点よりは進んでいるはずですから、C地点にいます。 アキレス(アキレウス)と亀 同様に、アキレスがC地点まで来たとき、亀はまた少し進んでD地点にいるでしょう。 アキレス(アキレウス)と亀

このような考え方は永遠に続けることができます。

つまり理屈上、アキレスは亀に追いつくことができないのです。  

飛ぶ矢は飛ばない 時間を永遠に分割する矢

飛ぶ矢は飛ばない

ある人が、的に向けて矢を射ったとしましょう。

時間とは限りなく分割可能なものです。それは、まさにいま飛んでいる矢と的の間の空間においても同じ。

飛ぶ矢は飛ばない

そう考えると、ある瞬間に矢が飛んでいる状態の時、まさにその瞬間において矢は静止しています。

ということは、矢はどの瞬間においても同様に静止していて、止まっているのであれば場所を変える瞬間はないということになります。

つまり理屈上、矢は的に当たらず、ずっと静止したままなのです。  

「この世はバーチャルリアリティー」パルメニデス

「アキレスと亀」「飛ぶ矢は飛ばない」は、古代ギリシアの哲学者ゼノンが、師であるパルメニデスの非常識ともいえる主張を援護するために考えたパラドックスです。

パルメニデスは、絶えず変化していくこの世界は虚妄に過ぎず、いわばバーチャルリアリティーのようなものであると主張しました。

そして本当に存在するのは、永遠に同一で不動な唯一のものだけであると考えました。

「あるものはある、ないものはない、あり且つないものはない」 これがパルメニデスのテーゼです。

捕捉ですが、ある・ないは存在の有無を意味します。

時間や空間といった人間が作り出した尺度に従い、感覚によって現象を探求するのでは、人間は自らの迷妄から逃れることができません。

本当に確かなものにたどり着くためには、この世の理に従い、理性によって探求する必要があると考えたのです。

再び「アキレスと亀」「飛ぶ矢は飛ばない」に戻ってみます。

するとパルメニデスが、いま目の前で起きている現象よりも、理性や理屈をいかに重要視していたかが理解できるのではないでしょうか。  

最後に

誰かさん

パルメニデスは理性中心の考え方なんだね。

当為

彼の思想を受けて、存在の不変不滅性を保ちながら、同時に現象を救済する試みが始まっていくよ。

最後まで閲覧して頂きありがとうございました。

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